Progressive movement. Will colleges overtake universities in enrollment?

Weekly “Argumenty i Fakty” No. 21. Got it from Azovstal 25/05/2022

In & nbsp; Russia, the time for final exams begins. Both parents and schoolchildren choose what to connect their future with, where to go — to a university or a college. Last year, a record —   — 1.2 million 200 people Against 900 thousand in 2018  Now, when the country will develop its own production, will this trend increase? And  what place in life can those who choose working specialties expect?

Where are the cadres forged today?

Serious reforms are beginning in the training of workers and mid-level specialists. Training programs will become shorter and more practice-oriented, and profession — more modern.

Who chooses colleges now?

Vocational secondary education attracts more than a million students. The advantages of this choice are obvious — you don't need to take the exam, you can quickly get a profession and start earning. As a result, not only school good students, but also excellent students went to colleges. Although not so long ago, technical schools and vocational schools were the lot of C students.

“Specifically, in & nbsp; our college, a three-year student has not been able to get for a long time. In last year, in order to get into the budget, you needed a minimum GPA of 4.2, — explains the director of the Moscow Region College „Energy“ (Reutov) Nerses Nersesyan.      there are specialties where for admission to the budget you need to have only five in certificate. We in general, a headache for all the surrounding schools — We pick up the best children after the 9th grade. Maximum competition — 24 persons per seat. It is much more interesting for children to study with us. Almost all of them work in the 3rd year. And it often happens that a child in school is a C student, and comes to college — and          the same subject suddenly has a five. This is because he touched the object with his hands, felt it, and understood through these tactile skills».

Nikolai Razinkin, Director of the Moscow College of Transport of the RUT (MIIT), confirms the fact that there are more students who are successful in their studies among those entering colleges: “For example, according to” specialty “organization of transportation and” management of the passing score for budget place last year was 4.75, and  „economics and accounting“ — 4.78. For other specialties, the passing score is lower. Of course, there are guys and & nbsp; weaker. But there is always a chance that by moving to secondary vocational education programs, students will be able to finish college with high results. After all, the grade in college — this is already an assessment of professional mastery and skills».

And who teaches in them?

The main thing, for that technical schools and colleges, —  they teach obsolete professions and  the students lack practice. Now the Ministry of Education has launched the “Professionality” program, which is designed to combine secondary vocational education and the real economy. Young people will receive professions under the guidance of mentors from enterprises. As early as this year, 70 educational and industrial clusters will be created in 42 regions in priority areas: nuclear industry, railway transport, metallurgy, mechanical engineering (in t. including aircraft and shipbuilding), chemical and  light industry, agriculture and the pharmaceutical industry. K 2024  there will be 210 such clusters.

One of the first will appear in Kaluga Region on the territory of the industrial park "Kaluga-South". The center will be able to prepare 5 thousand qualified specialists. Teachers of colleges and technical schools will also be able to undergo advanced training there. In the new standards, the focus is shifting to practical training. If in old programs the ratio was — 60–70% theory and 30–40% practice, then now vice versa — 30% theory and 70% practice. Plus, a large percentage of modern educational technologies are included: augmented reality, video tutorials, etc. By the way, IT specialists and programmers who are fashionable today are also trained in colleges.

What is the risk of haste?

So far, in the regions, the process of reforming education is far from going as smoothly as we would like. For example, the Voronezh Industrial and Technological College — one of the few educational institutions in the city that produce universal turners. Till. Why?

  The new standard of education does not include this profession, — laments college director Oleg Artemiev. — There is a CNC machine operator there, but we don't have the funds to buy such machines  There are only old lathes from the 1950s and 1960s. And after all, turners are needed and will always be required! They are worth their weight in gold today. Google what salaries they offer!

And how do the guys know that they need to go to turners? When was the last time a film was made that praised the working profession? Remember “Moscow does not believe in tears”? There, the heroes discussed:  Goshi had appendicitis — so the dissertation professors got up. There is no one to embody the theory in life. Jobs are in high demand. But the modern children have other examples before their eyes, they are all eager to bloggers! We need to change the situation.

We carry out career guidance, go to schools, tell stories. And the state very correctly decided to recreate youth organizations. You should look to the future, and for this, the guys need to be pulled out of social networks. At our Open Doors Day, children get acquainted with professions in practice. The child here can also solder sensors or dig into the engine. Children need to be integrated into the profession after the seventh or eighth grade. Then there is a chance that the person will not regret the path he chose.

Head of the Legislative Assembly of the Irkutsk Region. Alexander Vedernikovbelieves that deputies need to visit colleges and  technical schools, so that, based on the results of their trips, together with the government of the region, develop measures to support educational institutions: «The deeper we dive into the topic, the greater the understanding of how many problems have accumulated. This is an outdated material and technical base, and a lack of dormitories, and a shortage of teaching staff. Vedernikov believes that interaction between relevant ministries and serious financial injections are needed.

But how to make the right choice: go to college or enter a university? "I try not to give advice, — says Nerses Nersesyan. — One thing I can say: college — this is applied knowledge, including work with hands, here knowledge is obtained mainly through tactile skills.

What kind of work awaits a college graduate?

Vocational secondary education provides a profession in demand. Does guarantee material well-being?

The median salary of vacancies for such workers — 47.5 & nbsp; thousand rub. That is, half of them will receive more than this amount, and half — smaller. Scatter — from 20 to 140 thousand rub. per month — follows from HeadHunter's database of job offers. 20 thous. — money, maybe not so big, but employment for a person in a simple construction or manufacturing specialty is guaranteed. On average, there are 6 7 applicants for one vacancy. But among workers, the competition is only 1.4 people per place, in construction — 1.6, in manufacturing — 2.5. Moreover, over the year, the number of such vacancies on the online job search service has grown from 15 to 38 thousands. This means that a college graduate can get a job in a  specialty almost in a day: personnel officers hunt every new job seeker in the labor market.

"Most of all vacancies for workers with secondary specialized education are posted for workers (7 thousand vacancies) and construction (6.5 thousand) specialties — says head of research service Maria Ignatova. — The top five among working professions in terms of demand today are adjusters (2.7 thousand vacancies), fitters (2.2 thousand), locksmiths (2 thousand), mechanics (2 thousand jobs). ) and machine operators (1.3 thousand). Only                    Tatarstan and Krasnoyarsk Territory».

With such a high demand for people in relatively simple professions, their salaries should grow faster. However, this does not happen. Labor market researchers attribute this paradox to a simple circumstance. Most people in the professions taught in colleges are directly involved in the creation of goods or, for example, the construction of houses. Their salary — part of the cost of the final product. If it increases it, the price of what they produce will also increase and it will be harder to sell.

College Jobs position salary (on hand) Estimate measurer (renovation of apartments) 100–250  thousand rubles    Car Mechanic  70–135 ths. rub.  Electrician 60–100 ths. rub  Source: HeadHunter 

«The growth of salaries for this category of workers is possible only together with an increase in the efficiency of their labor, — believes Director of the Center for Labor Studies at the National Research University Higher School of Economics Vladimir Gimpelson. — If an employer invests in technologies, and its workers master more complex machines and mechanisms, salaries grow faster there. When  they act at the expense of the mass, increasing output by adding the number of workers, it is impossible to increase their income».

As a result, the factor of shortage of personnel with secondary specialized education contributes to the growth of their incomes by 3–5%, Headhunter believes.

Now the labor market will shift towards applied professions, we are sure economists. Sanctions, restriction of access to & nbsp; technologies, import substitution will require the use of more manual labor. As a result, the demand for people with college degrees will grow even more.

"A good secondary vocational education opens up many more opportunities than a mediocre higher education — Aleksey Zakharov, the founder of the SuperJob.Ru employment service, is sure. — In modern production, the line between „white“ and „blue“ collars — the person operating the robotic conveyor sits in a no less comfortable chair than his boss. And receives quite decent money. There are problems with personnel at old enterprises, where people are needed to sweep sawdust. A graduate from a good college won't go there, he'll get a much more interesting and money job.

Who is the hardest to find a job Professional field Percentage of employees who have been looking for a job for more than six months, % Senior management 33 Lawyers 26 Safety 25 Science, education 25 Civil service 25   Production, agriculture

25 Source: HeadHunter A for China college  — luxury

How are training for working professions organized in other countries?

— The same system of secondary vocational education as in Russia, — 4 years of study after grade 9 and 2 years after grade 11, upon completion of which a diploma is issued, — in  other countries almost none, — says Chief Research Fellow, Professor at the Institute of Education at the National Research University Higher School of Economics Irina Abankina.   In Germany, for example, the so-called sandwich system is popular: a person studies-works, studies-works, gradually accumulating the required level of qualification. Often guys who can not decide who they work with do run to university, but try to get such an education.

In European countries, various short training courses are organized by famous masters, firms or the state, as, for example, in Finland. They are usually paid. The cost, as well as the duration of training and entrance tests depend on whether a person is studying for himself or in order to earn money, whether a job is then provided etc. d.

In  America, after graduation, you can go to  professional courses. And you can go to college. Colleges in the USA are very popular, they are actually the first stage of higher education. They are usually 2 year olds. A college degree noticeably raises a person's status.

In Chinese, the guys who are guided by  universities go after the 9th grade to academic high school (it is also paid). The other part is trying to enter professional schools (vocational school). By the way, in China, any education after the 9th grade is paid. Only in certain industries that are supported by the state, agricultural, for example, are large discounts on education in vocational schools.

In they prepare everyone — and specialists for the banking sector, and workers for manufacturing and agriculture, and cultural workers. Training is practice-oriented, taught by the best masters. At the same time, everything that is produced by the students is sold. There are such schools at 30% at the expense of the state, at 30% at the expense of a sponsoring enterprise appointed by the state, and the rest is earned by the school itself through payment for tuition, sale of services or manufactured products.

But no more 40% of graduates go to vocational schools or universities. And & nbsp; 55 & ndash; 60% after 9 years of compulsory school do not continue education at all. Why? Even 500 dollars a a year for tuition many Chinese families cannot pay in condition. Therefore, the children immediately begin to work.

Who were the vocational schools waiting for in the USSR?

How many people went to study at universities, and how many — in technical schools in the times of the USSR? And whose choice turned out to be more correct?

This year, universities prepared only 588 044 state-funded places for applicants. According to the Ministry of Education, this is 11.5 thousand. more than last year. In 2023   the department plans to transfer more than 590 thousand rubles to the budget. applicants. In total we we have more than 4 million university students —  including paid seats.

In the USSR, higher education was much less accessible. The maximum number of students for the entire Soviet period was in the mid-1980s. For example, in 1985    the RSFSR had 635 thousand people. places for nearly 1.8 million high school graduates. And if the enrollment figures in  universities continued to grow every year, then institutions of secondary specialized education from year to recruited an approximately equal number of students. In 1965  they accepted (throughout the entire USSR) 660,000. students, from 1974 to 1987  the average enrollment figure did not exceed 800 thousand

Soviet higher education required from the student not only diligence, but also intelligence. C students were cut off at the stage of entrance exams. They and were taken away by the system of primary and secondary vocational education. She could give many professions for any level of ability and intelligence. As a result, only those who really needed it and who were able to master it went to receive higher education. And the overwhelming majority of diplomas were given by hard work.

The training program in vocational schools and technical schools was many times easier. At the same time, a skilled worker in the USSR could receive twice as much as an engineer. Those who worked at  plants and factories were entitled to significant social packages: medicine, boarding houses and dispensaries for workers, pioneer camps for their children. The scientific staff of numerous research institutes, where they went after the institutes, were forced to be content with much more modest living conditions. And it was more difficult with   — a worker could go the way “from” a simple milling machine operator to “a shop manager”. For further advancement, you still had to get a higher education, but already by correspondence, fairly formal.

“In order to get little, you have to study for a long time”?

Working dynasties — this term from the Soviet past is still relevant today. And the older generations in these dynasties see their children as successors of   

At the VIZ-Steel plant 11 dynasties with a total experience of more than 100 years. In the photo: the factory dynasty of the Kabalins – Shchipanovs, whose experience has reached 400 years! Photo: VIZ-Steel press service.

“Workers also need knowledge”

Alexander Kalganov is sure of this, foreman of the cold rolling shop of the VIZ-Steel plant from Ekaterinburg, a representative of a working dynasty with a total work experience of 130 years:

— Metallurgists at the plant worked three generations of our family, including my grandmother and grandfather. From my point of view, there is an undeniable plus in working at the enterprise: stability. A profession that you won't lose in your life, a decent salary, a good social package, career growth opportunities — weighty arguments in favor of choosing a working specialty.  I don't have a higher education, but I still made a good career: I started out as stacker-packer, and now I hold the position of foreman.

Many years ago, my father brought me to the plant. But  none of us ever went to production just because one of relatives worked here. There was always a personal desire and a certain material interest. My dad Sergey Vladimirovichworked at the factory for 44 years, started as a carpenter's apprentice. He followed the footsteps of his parents to the factory. And my younger brother said: «Plant — it's not mine». And nobody persuaded him to change his mind.

I have a schoolgirl daughter growing up. But I not sure I want her to finish college after high school and come to work with us. However, no attempts to influence its decision from our side will follow. As for education, I believe that in the foreseeable future, 99% of the production will be related to computers. In              shop, all processes are controlled by modern units with automated systems of a new generation, and    production quality is monitored by artificial intelligence. Therefore, future generations of workers will need knowledge. And, quite possibly, a high school diploma.

 Not in happiness yachts»

— For many years, together with two of my brothers I have been engaged in renovation — recognized by Alexander Teterlevfrom the village of Kochevo, Perm region. — A we are also building bathhouses, private houses, kindergartens. In the children mainly study as teachers, physicians and foresters —    there is no other work in villages and villages. But if you have the ingenuity and hands grow from where — you can live normally.  I have acquaintances who, with two higher educations, earn less than me. Sometimes I joke about them: “To get a little, you need to study for a long time.” A bitter joke, but often it is so. And & nbsp; if no jokes … Now in & nbsp; hospitals there is a shortage of nurses & nbsp; the same orderlies are paid pennies. Simple labor is so devalued that no one wants to go to such a job. And the state needs to think hard about this so that there is no shortage of workers.

When a university is behind , it's good. But during my youth we we we didn apply to institutes to not hang around the neck of parents, —     in the 1990s, it was impossible to combine study and part-time work. And let my kids decide what they like . A daughter, for example, wants to become a teacher. And I will not force her to study at university as lawyer or economist. Do you want them to have a high-paying job? I don't want them to be unhappy, striving for  riches” and feeling that palaces with pools and yachts — it's an impossible goal. Maybe you just need to set different goals? 

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